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Kingdom of Atenveldt Home Page

Kingdom of Atenveldt
Heraldic Submissions Page

(administered by the Brickbat Herald)

                                                                                                                                                                                 15 August 2002, A.S. XXXVII

                                                                                                                                                                                Kingdom of Atenveldt

Unto Their Royal Majesties Aaron and Alisandra; Mistress Magdelen Venturosa, Aten Principal Herald; the Heralds in the Atenveldt College of Heralds; and to All Whom These Presents Come,

Greetings from Marta as tu Mika-Mysliwy, Brickbat Herald!

This is the August 2002 internal Atenveldt Letter of Intent. It contains local submissions, asking questions of submitters and local heralds who have worked with them; if these questions are not addressed, the submission may be returned by the Atenveldt College of Heralds. You are welcome to comment both on submissions being considered for a future LoI and those already in an LoI; mistakes do get made, and I can correct ones, even on those submissions already at the Laurel level. Please have your comments to me 1 September. I accept online commentary, in addition to questions pertaining to heraldry:

Consultation Table: there will be a Consultation Table (accepting submissions and resubmissions) at the Southern Collegium in Mons Tonitrus on Saturday, 14 September. If you want to drag some reluctant submitters to it, feel free. If you’d like to volunteer some time there as well, consulting, learning or brushing up on your book armory skills, we’d love to see you there! Between the success of the Table at Kingdom Arts, and a number of submissions from throughout the kingdom coming in via the Local Heralds, you’ll see that this is a BIG internal letter this month!

Keep the Submissions Rolling: Local Heralds should hold a submission no more than a month before sending it on for kingdom review. A few groups have been remiss in this; illness, real life, etc., does give a bit of leeway, but in the event that you cannot process submissions in that amount of time (looking for conflicts and the like), send them up! Things can get a bit sticky if someone is fighting (or being fought for) in the Crown Lists, and their submissions are “somewhere” in the process, and banks give a hairy eyeball to old checks.

Letters of Acceptance and Return: In next month’s letter, we should be hearing about submissions that appear in the February 2002 Atenveldt LoI. The one after that will contain most of the Estrella War submissions.

Submissions Website: You can send electronic commentary on the most recent internal LoIs through the site, in addition to any questions you might have. Current submission forms can be found there. Please let your local populace know about it:

Please consider the following submissions for the September 2002 Atenveldt Letter of Intent:

Adam Carlos Diaz de Castile (Atenveldt): NEW DEVICE

Pean, an heraldic tyger rampant Or, a bordure embattled Or charged with six crosses espada gules.

Against Christiana Ann Steen: Quarterly azure and ermine, a tyger rampant regardant, a bordure raguly Or., there is 1 CD for difference of field and 1 CD for the addition of tertiary charges. There is no CD for change to the orientation of the monster’s head, and raguly and embattled are too similar to use them as a difference. I am more concerned by the “cross espada,” which I cannot find listed in any heraldic source so far. It looks somewhat like a cross of Santiago, and given the very small size of the crosses on the bordure, the CoA could return the submission for use of an undocumented charge or unidentifiability of the charge, whether or not it could be documented, considering its close appearance to a cross of Santiago.

Deborah Hawkins (Atenveldt): NEW DEVICE

Azure, on a pile throughout argent a bee inverted proper.

This isn’t a true pile, which issues from the chief only, not from the upper corners of the field. It can be correctly blazoned as Argent, chaussé azure, a bee inverted proper., yet because a pile and a chaussé field treatment do look very similar, they would be considered “identical” when doing conflict checks.

Lachlan McBean (Atenveldt): DEVICE RESUBMISSION from Kingdom, December 2000

Argent, a bird’s talon erased bendwise sinister sustaining a thistle purpure, slipped vert.

The name was registered December 2000.

The submitter’s original device submission, Argent, a wildcat sable, marked argent, bearing up its foreleg a targe gules., was returned for conflict with Houri the Savage, Argent a lion rampant sable armed, orbed and langued gules. This is a complete redesign. I think the thistle needs to be increased in size substantially to allow it to be a sustained charge (which counts for difference against conflict) vs. a small charge that is only maintained by the talon (which doesn’t contribute to difference). Please check this one carefully–I think there may be conflicts.

Suzanne du Soleil (Atenveldt): NEW DEVICE

Sable, a lily and on a chief triangular argent, a sun in glory Or.

The name appears in the February 2002 Atenveldt Letter of Intent.

My first reaction to this submission was that the chief triangular was drawn incorrectly; to be a true chief triangular, it should be about half the “depth” that it is now, the point coming to that horizontal line that a chief would cross the field (it would be much smaller, as a result). The other altermative, to keep the upper portion of the field large, is to drop the line of division down a little, so it issues from the sides of the shield, and reblazon this as Per chevron inverted argent and sable...

Then we noticed the real problem...there is a tincture violation here, with the sun Or on an argent background! This can be remedied by making the sun a color, or, if the field were modified to make it Per chevon inverted, to change the metal argent to a color (divided fields can be made of two colors, adjacent to each other).

The following submissions appear in the August 2002 Atenveldt Letter of Intent:

Adam Carlos Diaz de Castile (Barony of Atenveldt): NEW NAME

The name is Spanish, with a common construction of multiple given names, a family surname, and a locative. Adam is the submitter’s legal given name; while I could not find it in a list of Spanish names, it is a Biblical name and was fairly common during the Middle Ages, at least in England (Withycombe, p. 3). Carlos (the Spanish version of Charles), the family name Diaz, and the place name Castile (shown as de Castil and de Castilla), are all found in “Spanish Names of the Late 15th Century,” Juliana de Luna (

Áedán Mac Néill (Atenveldt): NEW DEVICE

Azure, on a saltire argent between four pairs of a decrescent argent and a mullet in fess Or two arrows inverted crossed in saltire proper, fletched vert.

The name appears in the February 2002 Atenveldt Letter of Intent.

A proper arrow has a wooden/brown shaft and a sable head, according to the Pictorial Dictionary. This technically violates the “Rule of Eight” (five tinctures: azure, argent, Or, vert and proper, and four charge types: saltire, arrow, decrescent, mullet); some leeway is probably applicable to the arrow, because a totally proper arrow would at least need the tincture of the fletching blazoned. To the submitter’s credit, he maintains period symmetry by having all crescents oriented in the same manner.

Aelina Faust (Granite Mountain): NEW NAME

Alina is common feminine given name, appearing in this form (the Latinized version of Aline) in 1187 (Withycombe, p. 16). This particular form, however, is found in “Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames,” Talan Gwynek (

Faust is an undated German surname in Bahlow (p. 133). In Webster’s Biographical Dictionary, there are also citation for Dr. Johann Faustus (THE Faust!), 1480?-1540?, and for a Johann Faust (a bookdealer), 1400?-1466.

Áengus Ó Conchobhair (Atenveldt): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Per pale Or and sable, an eagle displayed, wings inverted, between in bend sinister two crosses couped, a bordure, all counterchanged.

The name is Irish. Áengus is found as a “modern” form (late period) of Óengus (Ó Corráin and Maguire, pp. 148-9) Ó Conchobhair is found in MacLysaght, p. 55.

Atenveldt, Kingdom of: NEW ORDER NAME and NEW BADGE, “Le Ordre de le Artisan de Soleil”

Or, three fleurs-de-lys in annulo, bases to center, azure.

The name is French, “The Order of the Artisan of the Sun,” and it harkens back to the higher precedence Kingdom arts award, the Fleur de Soleil (“the Flower of the Sun”), in name and in armory, Or, five fleurs-de-lys in annulo, tips outward, gules.

Atenveldt, Kingdom of: NEW ORDER NAME and NEW BADGE, “Order of the Blood of Fenris”

(fieldless) A wolf passant argent goutty de sang.

The name is similar to a number of other “blood”-themed orders and titles (Dragon’s Blood, Stag’s Blood, Lion’s Blood), clear by the descriptive Fenris. While there is a Fenris Herald in the Midrealm, here Fenris is the modifier; additionally, mythological creatures do figure into Order names: dragons, particularly in S.C.A. precedence, and in the real world, the Order of the Golden Fleece. I don’t think it would be an issue if the name were considered more appropriate as the Order of Fenris’ Blood.

Atenveldt, Kingdom of: NEW ORDER NAME and NEW BADGE, “Order of the Builders of Atenveldt”

Per pale azure and Or, a sun counterchanged.

The name follows period naming practices for guilds and other groups of craftsmen and artisans, according to RfS III.2.b.iv (the Baker’s Guild of Ausberg, the Worshipful Company of Coopers). “Builder” dates back to c. 1380, according to the Compact Oxford English Dictionary. If there is an issue of the plural form of the Builder, it can be made singular, although there some guild names do reflect the “numbers” of their membership in their titles.

The badge should be clear of Valentine Hawkwood: Per pale azure and Or, a sun counterchanged Or and gules within a bordure counterchanged., with 1 CD for change of half the primary charge’s tincture, and 1 CD for removal of the bordure.

Atenveldt, Kingdom of : NEW ORDER NAME and NEW BADGE, “Order of the Golden Blade”

Azure, two rapiers inverted crossed in saltire and in base a rose, Or.

The descriptive golden removes the order name from conflict with the Company of the Sable Blade, registered to Johann Wolfgang von Hesse.

Atenveldt, Kingdom of: NEW ORDER NAME and NEW BADGE, “Order of the Sable Pheon”

Or, three pheons in annulo, points outward, sable, a bordure indented azure.

The descriptive term sable removes the order name from conflict with the Pheon Pursuivant, the Order of the Pheon (East), the Order of the Barbed Pheon (Caid), and the Order of the Golden Pheon (Outlands). Against Kezia von Holzenhaus Or, a cross of four pheons sable within a bordure gules., and Gwilym of the Three Rivers: Or, a pheon within a bordure embattled sable., there is 1 CD for difference in number of pheons and 1 CD for difference of line and tincture of bordures. The use of pheons in annulo also refers back to the armory for the Order of the Eagles Eye (Principality of the Sun) and the Order of the Azure Archers of Atenveldt.

Atenveldt, Kingdom of: NEW ORDER NAME and NEW BADGE, “La Ordern de la Luz de las Estrellas”

Per chevron inverted azure mullety argent, and argent.

The name is Spanish, “The Order of Light of the Stars,” i.e., Starlight. Translation comes from the Spanish-English English-Spanish Dictionary by Edwin B. Williams. While naming an order after a rather ethereal object such as starlight is unusual (it is rare even in S.C.A. cases), the Kingdom of Atenveldt does have registered to it the (very old) Order of the Light of Atenveldt. Other abstract Order names include nebulous items (Order of the Lux Caidis), wondrous events (Order of Annunciation, an Italian honor), and splendid virtues (the Kingdom of Atenveldt’s Order of the Legion of the Sword of Honor; Three River’s Baron's Order of Gallantry; Caid’s Order of the Legion of Courtesy; Trimaris’ Crowns Order of Gratitude).

Atenveldt, Kingdom of: NEW ORDER NAME and NEW BADGE, “La Ordern del Sirviente del Sol”

Azure, a demi-sun Or.

The name is Spanish, “The Order of the Servant of the Sun,” and follows period naming practices for guilds and other groups of craftsmen and artisans, according to RfS III.2.b.iv (the Baker’s Guild of Ausberg, the Worshipful Company of Coopers). Translation comes from the Spanish-English English-Spanish Dictionary by Edwin B. Williams.

Against several very close pieces of armory, we are counting 1 CD against this demi-sun, which sits squarely in the center of the field vs. any that issue from base or any other point of the field.

Avilina Mac Andrew (St. Felix): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Per bend vert and Or, three decrescents Or and a fox passant gardant gules.

The given name is English, a variation of Avelina; this spelling is found in “Women's Given Names from Early 13th Century England,” Talan Gwynek ( Mac Andrew is the Anglicized form of the Irish family name Mac Aindriu (MacLysaght, p. 5).

Blaise Mac Whinney (Atenveldt): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Argent, a chevron sable between a bat and two candles crossed in saltire gules, enflamed proper.

Blaise is the French form of the name of a saint popular in the Middle Ages, Blasius (Blase), Bishop of Sebaste, martyred in 316 (Withycombe, p. 51; he was invoked for relief from throat diseases, and the crossed candles are associated with him. Mac Whinney is a form of Mawhinney, an Irish family name (MacLysaght, p. 299 and 211).

Constantine de Felice (Atenveldt): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Per bend sinister azure and gules, a dolphin haurient and a crescent Or, a bordure argent.

The name is English and Italian (a permitted anomalous language combination). Constantine is the name of a Cornish saint said to have evangelized Scotland in the 6th Century (Withycombe, p. 73). de Felice is an Italian surname, a cognomen connoting happiness (Our Italian Surnames, p. 67).

Deborah Hawkins (Atenveldt): NEW NAME

The name is English. Deborah is a Biblical name, more common in the Reformation than during the SCA period (Withycombe, p. 80). Debra is the submitter’s legal name. Hawkins is shown undated in Reaney and Wilson, p. 169, under Hawkin. Sir John Hawkins, 1532-1595, is cited in The Historic Heraldry of Britain, A. Wagner, p. 71.

Dévora Risée de Apors (Tir Ysgithr) BADGE RESUBMISSION from Laurel, June 2002

(Fieldless) A raven regardant azure.

The name was registered March 1984.

Her original submission, A raven regardant azure., was returned for conflict.

Dianna Regina Oettel (Mons Tonitrus): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Per bend sinister gules and azure, a cross formy and issuant from sinister three wolves’ teeth Or.

The name is English and German. Diana is found in the 16th C. in England as a Renaissance given name (a Diana Luttrell, born in 1580, is cited by Withycombe, pp. 83-4). The submitter’s legal first name is Diann. Regina was also used in England, primarily in the 13th Century, and likely a reference to Mary, the Queen of Heaven (Withycombe, p. 251). Oettel is a German surname; while not shown in Bahlow, it is similar to the listed Öttel (under Otte, p. 351). The submitter provides copies of her German birth certificate (copies to Laurel), showing her birth name to be Regina Oettel; she wishes to incorporate elements of her birth and current use names.

Domingo Diaz de la Vega y Martin (Tir Ysigthr): NEW CHANGE OF DEVICE

Or, a morion and on a chief wavy sable, three birds volant bendwise sinister Or.

The name was registered April 2000. Please note that this is a change from the holding name Charles of Starkhafen, which itself was registered October 1995, via the Kingdom of Caid.

If registered, the submitter wishes to retain his current device, Or, a morion and on a chief wavy sable three birds volant bendwise Or., as a badge. (This device is currently seen only under the holding name, Charles of Starkhafen, in the Ordinary, and all armories should be shifted to Domingo Diaz de la Vega y Martin.)

Douglas Castle Hawk (Granite Mountain): NEW NAME CHANGE to “Perrin le Breton”

The original name was registered June 1998.

The name is French. Perrin is found in “An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris,” Colm Dubh ( The byname is also cited several times in this paper. If registered, the submitter wishes to release his currently-registered name, Douglas Castlehawk, into the public domain.

Elspeth Flannagann (Ered Sul): NEW DEVICE CHANGE

Per bend sinister gules and ermine, a dexter hand couped argent.

The name was registered July 2000.

If this new submission is registered, please release her currently-held device, Per chevron argent and gules, two hands couped sable and a foi

throughout argent.

Geoffrey Arkwright (Atenveldt): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Per pale argent and sable, a tai-chi between two natural panthers’ heads erased respectant and a natural panther’s head caboseed, a bordure embattled, all counterchanged.

The name is English. Geoffrey and its many spelling variants were popular throughout the Middle Ages; this spelling is shown over 200 times in “Masculine Given Names Found in the 1332 Lay Subsidy Rolls for Lincolnshire, England,” by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan ( Arkwright is found undated in Reaney and Wilson, p. 11, as an occupational surname, one who makes arks, chests, and the like; close spellings date to 1246 and 1450 (Arkewright).

This is a complex design, with a complex line on the bordure, an unusual but not prohibited primary charge (the tai-chi), and the orientation of the heads in a modern symmetrical style; however, it uses a minimum of tinctures and has a cohesive “feel” to the overall design.

Gregor von Heisenberg (Ered Sul): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Azure, a badger rampant and a chief argent.

The name is German. Gregor is the German form of the masculine given name Gregory (Withycombe, p. 139). The only reference Bahlow gives to Heisenberg is as the surname of the 20th C. physicist, with a reference to Old Norse (p. 223). Given the construction, it seems logical as a coined place name (“Heise/n Mountain”), so that von could be included in the name.

Isabella Dati (Tir Ysigthr): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Or, semy of Maltese crosses sable, a frog rampant vert.

The name is Italian. Isabella is found in “Feminine Given Names from the Online Catasto of Florence of 1427,” by Arval Benicoeur ( Dati is found in “Family Names Appearing in the Catasto of 1427" ( It is also the surname of Gregorio Dati, whose 15th C. personal journal is found in Two Memories of Renaissance Florence: The Diaries of Buonaccorso Pitti and Gergorio Dati, translated by Julia Martines, Waveland Press, Inc., Prospect Heights, IL.

Jehane Francis (Atenveldt): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Per pale Or and vert, a fret throughout counterchanged.

Jehane is the Old French form of the modern feminine name Jeanne (Withycombe, p. 174, under Jean). Francis is an unmarked patronymic; it is undated in Reaney and Wilson, p. 134, but there are a number of dated forms with close spellings.

Lachlan McBean (Atenveldt): CHANGE OF HOLDING NAME to Lachlan McBean of Ashie Moor, December 2000

The submitter’s original name submission Lachlan McBean of Kinchyle, was returned by the CoA in December 2000 for using Kinchyle, the clan seat of the MacBean, and these names cannot be combined in this matter, suggesting too strongly that the submitter is the leader of the clan. Ashie Moor is an area near Kinchyle (but not Kinchyle!), overlooking Loch Ness (

Maria Isabel Falcón de la Sierra (St. Felix) NEW NAME

The name is Spanish, and all elements are taken from Records of the Trials of the Spanish Inquisition in Ciudad Real, Volume III, Haim Beinart, The Insrael Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem, 1981. In the case of Rodrigo de la Sierra, 1483-1527, Alonso Falcón testifies against de la Sierra, as does Isabel Rodriguez. Maria and Isabel are also found as given names in “Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century,” Juliana de Luna (

Martin Wainwright (Granite Mountain): NEW NAME

The name is English. This spelling of Martin dates to 1258 (Withycombe, p. 210). [Note: Martin is the submitter’s legal surname...this is an excellent example of demonstrating to submitters how elements of their legal names can be incorporated into SCA names.] Wainwright, an occupational byname, is found in Reaney and Wilson, p. 471.

Meadhbh MacNeill (Atenveldt): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Per pale argent and vert, a tree, the sinister side blasted, and in chief two goblets, all counterchanged.

The name is Irish. Meadhbh is found on p. 135 of Ó Corráin and Maguire, the modern form of Medb. MacNeill is found on p. 234 of MacLysaght.

Nathaniel Constantine of Saxony (Tir Ysgithr): NEW NAME CHANGE to Nathaniel Constantine of Laibach

The submitter’s original name was registered November 1991.

Laibach is the German form of the name for the modern Slovenian city of Ljubljiana, first appearing in print in 1144 C.E. (p. 80, Slovenia, Steve Fallon, Lonely Planet Books, 1998; and pp. 6 and 19, Ljubliana, Nace Sumi, Nip Jugoslovenska Recija, 1979). The Diocese of Laibach was founded in the 15th C. (

Nadira bint Rashid (Tir Ysgithr): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Sable, in pale a human eye and a lotus flower affronty argent.

The name is Arabic, “Nadira daughter of Rashid.” Nadrah and Rashid are found in “Arabie Naming Practices and Period Names List,” Da’ud ibn Auda ( Given the variations in transliterating name elements from a non-Roman alphabet, Nadira would appear to be an acceptable variant of Nadrah.

Perin de la Serena (St. Felix): NEW NAME

The name is English and Spanish, a combination that the CoA considers anomalous but permitted. Perin is found in “Feminine Given Names in Chesham, 1538-1600/1,” Mari Elspeth nic Bryanon, dated to 1562 ( de la Serena is found in “Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century,” Juliana de Luna (

Robert Aonghus of Loch Mohr (Atenveldt): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Per chevron Or and azure, two thistle vert and a scorpion Or.

Robert is a popular masculine given name during the Middle Ages in England and in Scotland (Withycombe, pp. 254-5). Aonghus is the Gaelic form of the Scots surname Angus (Black, p.. 23-4). Loch Mohr is a small Scottish lake, 2.5 miles from the more renown Loch Ness.

The angle of the per chevron division could use a little more definition, although it shows up well on the colored emblazon sheets.

Senan O’Faolan (Atenveldt): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Per saltire sable and argent, in pale two unicorn’s heads erased and in fess two rapiers, all counterchanged.

The name is Irish. Senán is an Old Irish masculine given name (Ó Corráin and Maguire, p. 164). Faolan is the modern form of the Old Irish masculine given name Fáelán (ibid., pp. 92-93). As the surnames derived from Faolán include O Phelan, that is probably the more accurate “modern” form of the name, not O’Faolan, although MacLysaght does show it also as Ó Faoláin and Ó Fialáin (p. 245). The name would be more accurate in late period as Seanán O Phelan or Ó Faoláin or Ó Fialáin (given the use of rapiers in the device design, I’m guessing he has a later-period persona), while an earlier period name might be closer to Senán mac F(h)aolán (if he wanted to show Faolán as his father), or Senán ó F(h)aolán (if he wanted to show Faolán as a clan ancestor, not his immediate parent). I’ve contacted the submitter, and if changes need to be made, he prefers keeping the “ancestry” designation and a byname spelling beginning with “F,” such as Seanán Ó Faoláin.

While the unicorn’s head is not delineated by facial features (which it fine), the submitter needs to make sure that the beard is a prominent feature of the profile.

Shirin al-Adawiya (Tir Ysgithr): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Purpure, a descrescent between three points argent, each point charged with a mullet of eight points gules.

Shirin is Persian, “sweet.” It is a feminine name, found in “Zoroastrian Names” ( It was the name of the queen of King Khusrau II of Persian (591-628). al-Adawiya is an Arabic byname, most notably the byname of one of the founders of the Sufi mysticism movement, Rabiah al-Adawiya (714-801); documentation is found at

Sigrid Finnsdóttir (Atenveldt): NEW NAME

The name is Old Norse. Sigríðr, a feminine given name, and Finn, a masculine given name, are found in “Viking Names found in the Landnámabók,” Aryanhwy merch Catmael ( Sigrid is shown as a 16th C. Swedish form (in a St. Gabriel article), and I’m not sure how early this particular spelling appeared as a name element.

Sláine O’Connor (Atenveldt): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Gules, a frog and a bordure dovetailed Or.

The name is Irish. Sláine is a feminine given name (Ó Corráin and Maguire, p. 166). O’Connor is found in MacLysaght, pp. 55-6, the name of six distinct septs.

Frogs are tergiant (“back to the viewer”) by default, as is the case here, so the posture does not need to be mentioned in the blazon.

Tatiana Arkwright (Atenveldt): NEW NAME and DEVICE

Per fess argent and azure, in chief a roundel between in fess an increscent and a decrescent and in base a swan naiant, a bordure counterchanged.

The name is Russian and English. Tatiana is the name of an Orthodox saint martyred around 225 A.D. (Withycombe, p. 275). Arkwright is found undated in Reaney and Wilson, p. 11, as an occupational surname, one who makes arks, chests, and the like; close spellings date to 1246 and 1450 (Arkewright). The combination of English and Russian name elements is based on interactions between Russia and England: in 1555, the London-based Muscovy Company was established at the instigation of Ivan the Terrible to establish trading depots throughout Muscovy. S.C.A. that reflect possible interactions include the registered Tatiana Todhunter, March 1993, and Igor of Throckmorton, October 1999.

I remain,



Marta as tu Mika-Mysliwy

c/o Linda Miku

2527 East 3rd Street, Tucson AZ 85716; Atenveldt Submissions Website:



Bahlow, Hans. Deutsches Namenlexicon. 1967.

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland. The New York Public Library Press, NY.

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh and Fidelma Maguire. Irish Names. The Lilliput Press, Dublin, 1990.

MacLysaght, Edward. The Surnames of Ireland. Dublin, Irish Academic Press, 1991.

Morgan, T. J. and Prys Morgan. Welsh Surnames. Cardiff, University of Wales Press, 1985.

Reaney, P.H. and R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames, 2nd Edition, 1976 (reprinted 1979).

Withycombe, E.G., The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, 3rd Edition. London, Oxford University Press, 1977.

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